칼빈 아카데미
 

 

 

 

Basic Chronology of the Protestant Reformation,

Genevan Reform, and Calvin

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Broad Movements

Geneva

Calvin

c. 1500-c. 1525ish Northern Christian Humanism, beginning with the growth of satirical literature (Thomas Murner) and culminating in Erasmus spreading influence (his Ratio seu Methodus describes a program of biblical erudition coupled with moral reform)

 

 

10 July 1509 Calvin born at Noyon, Piccardy, son of an upwardly mobile town registrar destined to advance to secretary of the bishop

1517-1521 Martin Luther dissents from the church

 

 

1521, receives first benefice: chaplaincy to the altar of La Gsine in the cathedral of Noyon

1519-1525 The Reformation becomes a popular movement of religious and finally political dissent in parts of Switzerland and in the Holy Roman Empire

 

 

study of grammar and rhetoric in the school of the Capettes in Noyon

 

1523, Paris, enrolled in the College de la Marche and by the end of the year, in the College de Montaigu, where he remained a student until 1527

1524-1531 Urban Magistrates and territorial princes with the aid of evangelical theologians and preachers inaugurate systematic changes in religious organization in Central Europe.Some clerical and popular interest in France, Italy, and England in those changes and their rationale (i.e. evangelical theology).Strong interest among humanist intellectuals in France and Italy in the "Lutheran" heresy. At the same time, increasing pressure against the "Lutheran" heresy in Italy and France (30 April 1530, Determinatio facultatis of the Sorbonne against readers of the Collge Royal: Guillaume Bud, Nicolas Cop, Pierre Dans, and Fran뭥is Vatable)

1525 first prohibitions of some "abuses." Publication of propositions for a disputation, followed by first acts of violence against Genevan monasteries

1526 City of Geneva establishes an alliance with the city of Berne and Fribourg as part of long standing struggle to establish independence from the bishop of Geneva and the dukes of Savoy. Influence of evangelical preaching from Bern.

1531 Guillaume Farel, after a successful campaign in Bern, begins work in Geneva, from which he is expelled

1527, received second benefice: curacy of St-Martin-de Martheville, later exchanged for that of Pont l'Evque

 

early 1528 enrolls as a student of law at Orlans

summer 1529 goes to Bourges to study with Andreas Alciati

1531-1547 Progress of magisterial reform in additional cities through 1530's; 

 

Institutionalization continues among Protestants, including the closure of cloisters and diversion of resources to schools, hospitals, and poor relief under closer control of magistrates and princes (Nrenberg,  Hesse, Wrttemberg, etc.); secularizations of church property in England

 

Protestant territories and cities of the Empire seek to negotiate a compromise between Catholic and Protestant differences (culminating in the Regensburg Colloquy, 1541) and then try to consolidate their defensive alliance, 

 

culminating in the War of Schmalkalden, which the Protestants lose (1547)

 

The Protestant movement gains momentum in France as a semi-clandestine movement, Geneva begins to provide ministers to fledgling Protestant churches

1547-53 Protestant refugees from Germany (Martin Bucer, Pietro Martiri Vermigli, and others) work with archbishop Thomas Cranmer, with support of Edward VI, to promote reforms in Church of England (first Book of Common Prayer, 1549)

 

1553-1558, Mary Tudor queen of England, restoration of Catholicism.Refugees (John Knox among them) come to Geneva, insuring that the 몊outhern Reformation will remain a major factor in English Protestantism in the years to come.

 

1550s+, Geneva plays a tremendous role in the organization of French Protestantism (predominance of Genevan trained pastors).

 

1559 first French national reformed synod meets at Paris

 

1561 Colloquy of Poissy, convened by queen Catherine de Medici between Calvinist (especially Theodore Beza) and Catholic theologians, part of a royal attempt to molify Calvinist nobility beginning to form a party of rebellion.

 

1562-1563 First of the French civil wars between Huguenots and Catholics

 

1558-1603, Elizabeth queen of England, consolidation of English Protestantism

 

1565 Dutch wonderjaar of iconoclastic riots.

 

1572 beginning of the Dutch Revolt

1532, After expulsion, Farel sends Antoine Froment to Geneva who offers lessons in French as a platform for evangelical indoctrination and soon comes in conflict with Dominicans. City 30 March 1533 prohibit exchange of insults, attacks on sacraments or on fasts and ceremonies and order preachers to say only what can be proven from Scripture.

 

Spring 1534, open meetings of evangelicals and public conflict between Catholic clergy and evangelicals. Bernese support evangelicals by calling for a public disputation and send Farel back to Geneva.

 

8 August 1535, Farel preaches in St. Pierre for the first time.

 

Alliance of bishop of Geneva with duke of Savoy to regain city. Council seeks Bernese support and increasingly endorses evangelical party (Bernese are trying to draw Geneva into the Swiss Confederacy).

 

Genevan Council accepts reform on Bernese model, with magistrates exercising authority in traditional clerical domains (church discipline, frequency of sacraments). Calvin and Beza struggle to protect clerical authority in those matters, which forces their exile Easter, 1538.

 

1541-1555 Second phase of Genevan reforms, now under the leadership of John Calvin and the Consistory, an institution established by him. This begins with the Ecclesiastical Ordinances of 1541, establishing church government by four offices: pastors, teachers, elders, and deacons. This period was marked by ongoing struggle between Calvin/consistory and the Genevan magistrates, and it ended in 1555, when the last supporters of one Calvin뭩 last opponents among the Genevan ruling families, Ami Perrin, fled Geneva for Berne after Perrin뭩 condemnation and execution in effigy. The most controversial actions of the Genevan Reformation occurred during this period.

 

1545 Sebastian Castellio banished after criticizing the canonical status of the Song of Songs, asserting the literalness of Christ뭩 descent into hell in the Apostle뭩 Creed, and then criticizing the Genevan pastors during his censure.

 

1551 Jerome Bolsec banished from Geneva for challenging the doctrine of double predestination.

 

1555 Michael Servetus was executed by burning for denying the doctrine of the Trinity and publishing and obstinately maintaining other heresies.

 

1555-1564 Calvin뭩 ascendancy in Geneva. Geneva becomes an international city of refuge and the main force in the international Protestant movement. 

 

1559 Genevan Academy established. (제네바 아카데미 설립)

death of his father, Gerard Cauvin, 26 May 1531.

 

June 1531, returns to Paris. Calvin begins studies at the Collge Royal.

 

Publishes preface to Pierre de l'Estoile's Antapologia.

 

April 1532, Commentary on Seneca's De clementia(세네카의 관용론)

 

May 1532-33, returns to Orlans to complete study of law and receive license.

 

August 1533, visit to Noyon

 

returns to Paris, where pressure against evangelicals was mounting (Sorbonne's condemnation of Marguerite, Queen of Navarre's Le miroir de l'me pcheresse).

 

1 November 1533, Cop's address.

 

1534 Calvin visits Jacques Lefvre d'Etaples at Nrac, visits Noyon and resigns his benefices, visits Paris and Orlans where he wrote the Psychopannychia. Letter to Martin Bucer, "lord bishop of Strasbourg."

 

1535-1536, Basel. Composes and publishes there the first edition of the Institutesin Latin: (1536, 6 chapters) (기독교강요 초판 발행)

 

1536-1538 Geneva (1차 제네바 사역기)

 

partial French translation of the Institutes, used in his Instruction and Confession of the Faith for Use in the Church of Geneva (1537)

 

1538-1541 Strasbourg, pastor of French refugee congregation. (추방기간)

 

1539 second edition of the Latin Institutes(17 chapters) (기독교강요 증보판 발행)

 

Produces his first Psalter (13 Psalms + Canticle of Simeon and Ten Commandments) there. Begins personal aquaintance with Philip Melanchthon and participates in negotiations between Protestants and Catholics. With Martin Bucer and Jacob Stein, delegate of city of Strasbourg to Regensburg Colloquy (1541)

 

1541-1564 Geneva (2차 제네바 사역기)

 

1541 French translation of the Institutes based on the text of 1539, also using the manuscript translation of 1537.

 

1543 Latin Institutes (21 chapters) published at Strasbourg (기독교강요 3판 발행)

 

1545 French translation of the Institutes published at Geneva

 

1550 the Latin edition of the Institutes of 1543 is republished at Geneva (기독교강요 4판 발행)

 

1551 French translation of the Institutes of 1545 republished at Geneva.

 

1559 final Latin edition of the Institutes published at Geneva, divided into four parts, chapters, and paragraphs. (기독교강요 라틴어 최종판 발행)

 

1560 final French translation of the Institutes published at Geneva. (기독교강요 불어 최종역 발행)

 

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